Formal-semantic signs of the main parts of the sentence (on the material of the poem of Lesia Ukrainka «Іn the forest»)
The article is devoted to the description of formal and semantic features of the main parts of the sentence (on the material of Lesia Ukrainka’s poem “In the Forest”). More than one generation of linguists has addressed the problem of the syntactic role of nouns and verbs in the modern Ukrainian language, as evidenced by the works of I. Vykhovanets, N. Ivanytska, A. Kvaschuk, O. Melnychuk, and K. Shulzhuk. etc. In the works of I. Pupil “Grammar of the Ukrainian language. Syntax” (Vykhovanets, 1993: 368), K. Shulzhuk “Syntax of the Ukrainian language” (Shulzhuk, 2004: 406) describes the peculiarities of the syntax of the modern Ukrainian language, special attention is paid to the study of forms of expression of the main parts of the sentence. Semantic features of noun and verbal phrases, the components of which may be members of the sentence, are described in the collective
monograph “Modern Ukrainian literary language”, ed.by I. Bilodid (Modern Ukrainian Literary Language, 1969: 582).
The article combines all the valuable, tested, related to the study of nouns and verbs, parts of the sentence, highlights the main aspects of the study
of the main parts of the sentence – the subject and predicate, their role in the modern Ukrainian language. It is pointed out that the current problem is to highlight the features of the syntactic role of nouns and verbs, forms of expression of sentence members, because syntactic theory is developing
rapidly, and recently in domestic linguistics there is a growing interest of researchers in the expression of subjects and predicates in modern Ukrainian.
The question of the importance of observing the phrase and sentence during the study of the Ukrainian language on the material of Lesia Ukrainka’s
poem “In the Forest” is investigated. The explanation of the main members of the sentence is based on a multifaceted description of the sentence as the main syntactic unit of I. Vykhovanets and the statement that the predicate is the main part of a two-sentence, which indicates the modal-temporal characteristics of the predicate and is in predicative connection with the subject, and subject – means the subject to which the sentence attributes an action or state, called a predicate. The problem of organizing a simple sentence from the point of view of semantic-syntactic analysis is actualized. The information on subject constructions as a separate kind of the main member of the sentence, which has a number of specific features, and predicate complexes is generalized.
The parameters of the subject’s functioning and the main form of its expression – the noun, the predicate and the main form of its expression – the
verb are described. Emphasis is placed on the fact that the structure of the subject and predicate in the Ukrainian language are not the same and have
their own morphological means of expression. Simple subjects and predicates can be homogeneous. In the role of the subject there are semantically different syntactic elements, which are expressed by a noun or a substantivized word. Groups of simple and compound subjects and predicates of the Ukrainian language, which have their own peculiarities, are singled out and characterized. The justification is confirmed by examples. It is concluded that the main members of the sentence – the subject and predicate – are members of the sentence, which have their own differential features and certain forms of expression. It is indicated that the analyzed syntactic units create a grammatical structure of language for its functioning.
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