Artistic and aesthetic interpretation of the archetype of the earth in the novel «Zhmeniaky» by M. Tomschaniy
The article analyzes the archetype of the land in the novel «Zhmeniaky» by M. Tomschaniy. The study of this archetype was carried out on the basis of the concept of K.-G. Jung about the collective unconsciousness. It is determined that the archetype of land in the novel is made clear through the
image of Ivan Zhmnyak. Thanks to him, the author manages to convey the continuity of the spiritual tradition, the genetic memory of the relationship between man and earth. The article states that M. Tomchany not only continued the tradition of representing the life of the peasant in his work on earth, but also comprehended it in a new way, taking into account the specifics of the Transcarpathian locus. The synthesis of the earth and man by the author is reflected on two levels: external (spatial) and subconscious. In the first case, the image of the earth is realized through the natural space in which the Transcarpathians live, while the second one is interpreted as the subconscious dependence of the farmer on the land of the nurse, hence the fear of losing it. On the other hand, the concept of the earth acts as a kind of moral qualities of personality. So, a Jew in the village is considered a stranger in the countryside because of the fact that, instead of trading in a vodka in a tavern, as does his relative Neumann, he loves hard work at the plow, thus choosing honest earnings; The pawman refuses to help the village killer Bodor spit the ends of the field, for «the land will not accept the grain from such a hand, it will not yield the first harvest» (Tomchanyi, 1974: 24). In addition, the image of the earth reveals the most prominent features of the heroes – the antezism of the old Zhmeniak, the love for the fatherland of the region of Yurko Telegazi, and others like that. It should also be noted that partly genetic interdependence of man and earth transformed into internal subjective nature of the character, the certifying his character traits such as isolation, darkness, severity and reticence, sometimes even avarice. These qualities are due to the difficult fate of Ukrainian-Rusyn: in the pages of the trilogy, the artist depicts the human souls who are offended by the political cataclysms of the 20th century. The archetype of the earth in the novel finds its expression in the religious associative field, where it is transformed into a symbol of the right mothernurse, which gives birth to everything and after death takes back to his womb.
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